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The myths of trabecular metal: 'the next best thing to bone'
Yousry Eid
October-December 2013, 48(4):327-329
  5,806 4,278 1
Clinical outcome of using a third-generation short gamma nail in the treatment of extracapsular proximal femoral fractures
Ihab I El-Dessokey, Molham M Mohammed
October-December 2013, 48(4):354-362
Introduction A sliding hip screw is still considered the gold-standard method for fixation of extracapsular hip fractures; however, failures are still encountered with some subtypes. A short gamma nail is considered to allow better fixation for unstable subtypes, with the additional advantages of intramedullary fixation. Aim The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of traumatic proximal femoral fractures fixed with a short gamma nail (third-generation design), with a particular focus on our experience of surgical techniques. Patients and methods We prospectively reviewed the results of 20 patients who had undergone intramedullary fixation with a short gamma nail for traumatic extracapsular proximal femoral fractures in Kasr Al-Ainy hospitals during an 18-month period from September 2009 to March 2011. The average age of the patients was 55 years (range 31-69 years), with seven male patients and 13 female patients. The average operative time was 75 min (range 50-110 min). Clinical and radiographic assessments were performed during follow-up visits at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 1΍ years using the Kyle scoring system. Results Nineteen of the 20 traumatic fractures healed uneventfully. One patient required reoperation after a period of 6 months for screw cutout, although this patient was healed completely. Walking and squatting ability was restored in all patients by 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion This study suggests that a short gamma nail is a reliable implant for proximal femoral fractures, leading to a high rate of bone union and minimal soft tissue damage. Intramedullary fixation has biological and biomechanical advantages, but the operation is technically demanding, with some restrictions.
  9,032 510 -
Arthroscopic treatment of cyclops nodule after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament
Hesham A Mohamed
July-September 2015, 50(3):148-153
Background Cyclops nodule can develop after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. It can lead to loss of full knee extension with development of an audible and palpable 'clunk' with terminal extension. Patients and methods Sixteen patients presented with persistent lack of full knee extension after torn ACL. All patients were subjected to rehabilitation with emphasis on knee extension for 6 weeks after presentation. Persistent lack of full extension despite aggressive rehabilitation was an indication for arthroscopic resection of the cyclops nodule. At arthroscopy, a cyclops nodule was found impinged in the intercondylar notch and acted as a mechanical block to full knee extension. After arthroscopic resection of the nodule under spinal anesthesia, the knee was manually manipulated to regain full knee extension. Physical therapy exercises were then prescribed to obtain and maintain full extension. Results Full knee extension was achieved for 12 (75%) patients at the time of the surgical procedure. After 2 years of follow-up, all patients achieved full range of knee motion with no complications. Conclusion It is important to recognize a cyclops nodule as a possible cause of extension loss in any patient with ACL injury. It is readily amenable to arthroscopic resection and good patient outcome.
  7,564 237 -
Effectiveness of Achilles tendon stretching for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis
Hesham A Mohamed
October-December 2015, 50(4):215-222
Background Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. Its characteristic features are pain and tenderness on the medial aspect of the heel. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the Achilles tendon-stretching protocol for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. Patients and methods A total of 24 patients who had chronic proximal fasciitis for a duration of at least 6 months participated in this study. The patients received instructions for an Achilles tendon-stretching program. Pain and functional limitations were evaluated with the Foot Functional Index pain subscale and the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale. The patients were re-evaluated after 6 months. Results The mean Foot Functional Index baseline scoring was 7.69, whereas its mean scoring at follow-up was 1.44. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Scale outcome measures also revealed significant improvement for 22 (91%) patients who practiced the Achilles tendon-stretching exercises regularly. Only two (9%) patients reported little improvement, as they were not compliant with the daily stretching routine. Conclusion This study provides an effective, inexpensive, and straightforward treatment protocol for the chronic plantar fasciitis. In addition, compliance may have affected the results if the patients did not perform their exercises regularly.
  3,484 4,169 -
Fixation of tibial bony avulsion of the posterior cruciate ligament using the posteromedial approach
Mohamed E Attia, Amr I Zanfaly
April-June 2014, 49(2):81-85
Background Tibial avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament are not infrequent. Controversies exist between fixation of the fragments and their reconstruction in patients with small bony fragments. This prospective study was undertaken to study the results after fixation of the fragments using a lag screw. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures using the posteromedial approach and fixation with navicular screws. Study design This was a prospective study conducted in 12 patients treated by fixation with navicular screws through the posteromedial approach. Patients and methods From June 2008 to March 2010, 12 patients with acute posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture of the tibial attachment were treated surgically at Zagazig University Hospital and Health Insurance Hospital. Nine patients were male and three were female. Navicular screw fixation was used in all 12 patients in avulsed bony fragments, with washers in eight patients and no washers in four patients. Results All the avulsion fractures achieved union at an average of 10-14 weeks. All patients had severe posterior instability (>10 mm) preoperatively. After union of the fracture, no case suffered severe instability. Patients were followed up for an average of 7.58 months (range 6-12 months). Of the 12 patients included in this study, four (33.3%) showed excellent results, seven (58.3%) showed good results, and one (8.3%) showed a fair result. Conclusion The treatment of avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament by open reduction through the posteromedial approach and internal fixation using partially threaded screws gives very good functional and radiological results. The dissection involved is minimal and risk to the neurovascular structures is negligible.
  6,839 622 3
Partial fibulectomy for treatment of tibial nonunion
Ahmed Shawkat Rizk
March 2014, 49(1):18-23
Background Despite the improved rate of union reported in tibial shaft fractures, there continues to be a small number of patients with delayed union and nonunion who present a dilemma to the surgeons. Because the spectrum of injuries to the tibia is so great, many methods of treatment are available to treat tibial nonunions. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate partial fibulectomy as an easy, simple, and effective treatment option in the treatment of certain types of tibial nonunions. Patients and methods This prospective study included 20 patients with established tibial nonunion. All patients were evaluated clinically in laboratory and radiologically before surgery and followed up until after complete union of the tibial fractures. Results All fractures were united at an average duration of 15 weeks (range 10-19 weeks) after partial fibulectomy, with acceptable alignment in the coronal and sagittal planes. There were no neurovascular complications, no limitation of joint motion, and no problems at the fibulectomy site. Conclusion The results were very satisfactory and were significantly in favor of using this easy, simple procedure in the treatment of certain patients of tibial nonunions.
  6,936 417 1
Subscapularis release and tendon transfer in treatment of posterior shoulder dislocation in obstetric brachial plexus palsy
Yousuf M Khira, Elsayed El-Etewy Soudy
July-September 2013, 48(3):220-228
Background Muscle imbalance of the shoulder results in weak external rotation and abduction. Active internal rotation and adduction can cause glenohumeral joint deformity with late posterior dislocation. Patients and methods This prospective study conducted from 2004 to 2009 included 34 patients, 18 girls and 16 boys, with a mean age of 4 years (1-7 years). The right side was affected in 19 patients, whereas the left side was affected in 15 patients. All patients suffered from obstetric brachial plexus palsy with internal rotation contracture and defective shoulder abduction plus posterior dislocation or subluxation of the humeral head. These patients were treated by soft tissue release (subscapularis slide and anterior soft tissues release) with or without tendon transfer (latissimus dorsi and teres major to infraspinatus). Conclusion Subscapularis release provided an objective functional benefit; however, it degraded over time. Teres major and latissimus dorsi to infraspinatus transfer is a useful procedure for correction of defective shoulder abduction and external rotation in obstetric brachial plexus palsy as it increases the stabilizing action of the rotator cuff, thus allowing the deltoid to act with maximal force.
  6,138 433 -
Functional outcome after surgical plating for humeral shaft nonunion
Mohammed J Al-Sayyad
October-December 2014, 49(4):267-272
Background Although the great majority of fractures of the mid-third of the humeral shaft heal uneventually when treated nonoperatively, nonunion is not a rare condition. The prevalence of nonunion as a complication of both nonoperative and operative treatment has been reported to be as high as 13%. Open reduction and plate fixation combined with autologous bone grafting can result in reliable healing of these humeral nonunions with excellent functional outcome. Patients and methods Between 2002 and 2007, 30 consecutive nonunion cases of the midpart of the humeral shaft were treated with open reduction and internal fixation by a single surgeon. The series included 14 female patients and 16 male patients with an average age of 42 years (range 19-57 years). The patients were followed up for an average of 28 months (range 24-56 months). The time from diagnosis of nonunion to our treatment of the nonunion averaged 9 months (range 6-24 months). Result According to the Stewart and Hundley Criteria, the functional postoperative result was excellent or good in 24 (73%) cases and fair in six (27%) cases. One year after surgery, all patients had an essentially normal range of motion of the ipsilateral elbow and shoulder. According to the scoring system of Constant and Murley the postoperative average score was 90 (range 88-96). Conclusion Surgical compression plating and autologous bone grafting of humeral diaphyseal nonunions resulted in 100% union rate and mostly excellent or good functional results without significant morbidity.
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Cemented calcar replacement hemiarthroplasty for unstable intertrochanteric fracture femur in elderly patients
Ayman A Bassiony, Mohamed K Asal, Haytham A Mohamed
June 2013, 48(2):190-193

Unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients are associated with a high rate of complications and poses difficulty in fixation. Cemented calcar replacement hemiarthroplasty may be a suitable treatment in these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and functional results of the use of such a prosthesis in old patients with an unstable intertrochanteric fracture of the femur.

Patients and methods

Thirty patients were included in this prospective study, mean age 66 years. All the patients had unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Only patients with type III, IV, or type V fractures according to the Evans’ classification were included in the study. Functional and radiological results were assessed after a mean follow-up period of 22 months.


At the end of the study, only 24 patients were available for evaluation. The mean follow-up period was 22 months (range, 18–36 months). At the last follow-up, the mean Harris hip score was 85 points. Radiologically, all stems were stable, without significant changes in alignment or progressive subsidence. No infection or thromboembolic complications were encountered.


Cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty with calcar replacement is a good option for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in the elderly. It allows early weight bearing and rapid return to prefracture activity and does not have the difficulty and complications of internal fixation of this complex fracture.

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Technical tips for fixation of proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients
Michael E Torchia
June 2013, 48(2):200-208

Despite the application of modern locking plate technology, complications remain common after fixation of proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Varus deformity and intra-articular hardware are most often responsible; fortunately, both of these complications can be avoided. Recent advances in imaging, reduction techniques, fixation methods, and postoperative care have made surgical outcomes more reliable. Particular attention should be paid to obtaining high-quality fluoroscopic images, avoiding varus reductions, supporting the osteoporotic humeral head, using appropriate screw length, using tension band sutures liberally, and protecting the construct postoperatively. Using these methods, many proximal humeral fractures in patients older than 75 years can be fixed reliably.

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Derotation osteotomy for congenital radioulnar synostosis
Semaya Ahmed ElSayed
April-June 2014, 49(2):92-95
Background Congenital radioulnar synostosis is a rare condition. It is the result of failure of segmentation between the radius and ulna. It may be isolated or associated with other abnormalities. It may also be found as a part of well-known syndromes. It is bilateral in 60% of the cases. Patients and methods This series included five patients with congenital radioulnar synostosis. There were three female and two male patients. The mean age at surgery was 10 years (range 5-22 years). All patients were unilateral. The right forearm was involved in four patients and the left in one patient. One patient had associated ipsilateral symbrachydactyly. The indication for surgery was limitation in performing the activities of daily life regardless of the degree of pronation deformity. They were treated by transverse rotational osteotomy through the synostosis in four cases. In the fifth case, the osteotomy was performed at the diaphysis of the radius because the synostosis was so proximal and short. The osteotomy was fixed by small set dynamic compression plate (DCP) plate in all cases. Results The mean time of union of osteotomy was 7 weeks (range 5-12 weeks). The functional results after surgery were satisfactory in all patients. Conclusion Rotational osteotomy is a good option to treat the congenital radioulnar synostosis. The preferred position is the neutral as the compensatory movement of the shoulder and wrist will allow proper positioning of the forearm.
  5,565 320 -
Tumors for the general orthopedist: how to save your patients and practice
Kristy L Weber, Terrance Peabody, Frank J Frassica, Michael P Mott, Theodore W ParsonsIII
July-September 2013, 48(3):307-317
It is likely that most orthopedic surgeons will see a patient with a benign or a malignant musculoskeletal tumor sometime during their career. However, because of the rarity of these entities, many surgeons may benefit from a review of how to evaluate a patient with a bone lesion or a soft-tissue mass. A logical approach is necessary for the evaluation of imaging studies as well as in the workup of children and adults with a possible tumor. It is important to have a good working relationship with a musculoskeletal radiologist to assist in interpreting the images. If the treatment algorithms lead to a conclusive diagnosis of a benign bone tumor, benign soft-tissue mass, or metastatic bone disease, the orthopedic surgeon may choose to definitively treat the patient. If the workup indicates an indeterminate lesion, it may be prudent to discuss the situation with an orthopedic oncologist or transfer the care of the patient to a physician with more specialized knowledge. A careful, logical workup is needed before surgery to limit risks to the patient and optimize the chances for a favorable outcome.
  5,392 306 -
Repair of ulnar collateral ligament injuries of thumb metacarpophalangeal joint with microanchors
Ashraf N Moharram
March 2014, 49(1):34-37
Background Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb are common. Complete rupture can be a debilitating injury resulting in decreased grip and pinch strength. Purpose The present study evaluated prospectively the functional results of 27 patients who had open repair of UCL of the thumb using microanchors either acutely or delayed (up to 9 weeks postinjury). Patients and methods Through a standard S-shaped incision over the dorsoulnar aspect of the thumb, one or two 1.5- or 1.3-mm microanchors are fixed to the base of the proximal phalanx in the footprint of the avulsed ligament and are used to suture the proximally based flap after temporary pinning of the MCP joint. Results The stability, range of motion, pinch grip, and radiographs were evaluated at least 16 months after surgery. The mean time off work was 10 weeks. All patients had equal stability and normal pinch grip when compared with the untreated thumb, allowing all patients to return to preinjury activities, including sports, except one (96% of patients). During final follow-up, radiographs showed no implant complications and no osteoarthritic changes in the MCP joints, and stress testing showed that all patients had normal stability in the treated thumb when compared with the untreated thumb. Only two patients complained a lumpy swelling at the ulnar aspect of the MCP joint, one of which was tender. Conclusion Repair of UCL of the MCP joint of the thumb with this technique is an effective, durable, and safe method to allow restoration and maintenance of a stable, pain-free thumb.
  5,153 261 1
Modified Hoffer technique for treatment of internal rotation deformity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy
Mohamed E Attia, Emad E Abdelhadi
March 2013, 48(1):45-50

In the Hoffer technique, the tendons of the latissimus dorsi (LD) and teres major (TM) muscles are transferred to the rotator cuff posterior to the long head of the triceps muscle, which significantly improves external rotation and abduction range of motion in the shoulders of children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) with internal rotation contracture.

Patients and methods

Ten children with OBPP C5/C6 pattern were included in the study and underwent simultaneous subscapularis recession and transfer of the LD and TM tendons to the rotator cuff through a single posterior incision. The age at the time of surgery ranged from 3 years and 3 months to 14 years and 1 month, with an average age of 7 years. The age at initial evaluation ranged from 1 year and 6 months to 9 years and 8 months, with an average of 5 years and 11 months.


There was significant improvement in the degree of active shoulder abduction, from a mean 72° (range 40–90°) preoperatively to 136° (range 90–180°) postoperatively. The preoperative passive shoulder external rotation averaged from 78° (range 0–100°) to 64°. The postoperative active external rotation ranged from 0 to 90°.


Transfer of LD and TM tendons through a single incision to the rotator cuff significantly increases the degree of abduction and external rotation in children with OBPP having internal rotation contracture.

  4,463 560 -
Image intensifier-guided percutaneous drilling for osteoid osteoma of the proximal femur
El-Negery A Abed
October-December 2016, 51(4):291-296
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of image intensifier-guided percutaneous drilling destruction of the nidus as a minimally invasive surgery for osteoid osteoma (OO) of the proximal femur. Background OO is a painful, benign, small osteogenic bone tumor. For a long time, surgery was the only treatment for these lesions. Different minimally invasive therapeutic techniques have been proposed. Patients and methods Between 2009 and 2011, 14 patients (nine male and five female) with OO were treated at Mansoura University Hospitals by percutaneous drilling destruction of the nidus under image intensifier. Results All procedures were technically successful. Clinical success was achieved in 94.5% of patients. Only one patient had incomplete removal of the nidus. There were no other complications. Conclusion Image intensifier-guided percutaneous drilling destruction of the nidus is a safe, simple, and effective minimally invasive technique for the treatment of OO of the proximal femur.
  1,966 3,050 -
Extensive supraclavicular rib resection and scalenectomy in neurogenic type of thoracic outlet compression syndrome
Ashraf Moharram, Mohamed Sawan, Mohamed Abdel Megeed
October-December 2014, 49(4):273-276
Background The majority of patients with thoracic outlet compression syndrome present with vague upper limb pain and paresthesia and lack clear evidence of compression on investigations and are known as the 'disputed Neurogenic type'. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 39 patients (eight bilateral) who underwent 47 operations to evaluate the prognosis, outcome, and complications of surgical treatment of the disputed neurogenic type of thoracic outlet syndrome by extensive anterior supraclavicular decompression with complete excision of the first rib, the cervical rib and/or an elongated transverse process of C7 as well as scalenectomy and excision of any anomalous fibromuscular bands. Results Results were graded on the basis of symptomatic improvement. Excellent results were reported in 24 (51%) operations, good results in 18 (38%), and fair results in five (11%) operations. None of our patients considered their operation as a failure. There were no major complications; however, recurrence of symptoms occurred in three (6.5%) patients after an average of 19 months. Conclusion This procedure was found to be successful, with a low rate of complications and recurrence.
  2,871 1,694 -
Primary bone grafting with locked plating for comminuted distal femoral fractures: can it improve the results?
Ahmed Shawkat Rizk, Mohamad E Al-Ashhab
April-June 2015, 50(2):77-83
Background Distal femoral fractures are challenging injuries. The thin cortex, wide medulla, extensive comminution, and articular extension make fixation difficult, with high rates of nonunion and implant failure. Fixation of such fractures with bridging plates relies on secondary healing with callus formation. Although locked plating has improved the fixation strength, recent studies substantiate the concern that the high stiffness of these constructs suppresses callus formation, contributing to a nonunion rate of up to 19% seen with periarticular fractures. The absence or delay of osseous union maintains the construct loaded with the possibility of implant failure or loss of fixation. Aim of the work To highlight the importance of primary bone grafting with distal femoral locked plates in fixation of comminuted distal femoral fractures in adults as a biological enhancer of early callus formation; adding a protective mechanical support - once integrated - to the construct against stresses that can cause non-union and/or implant failure due to the reported callus suppression with such constructs with high stiffness. Patients and methods This prospective study included 11 patients with closed, comminuted distal femoral fractures. Clinical and radiological evaluation was performed. Fractures were classified according to the AO-OTA system. Radiological results were evaluated according to the ASAMI radiological scoring system, whereas functional results were assessed according to Schatzker and Lambert criteria and the ASAMI functional scoring system. All fractures were fixed through the open lateral approach using locked plates with primary autogenous bone grafting in the comminuted area all around. Results All fractures united with a mean union time of 16.2 weeks. The functional outcome according to the used scoring systems was excellent in nine patients (81.8%) and good in two patients (18.2%). Thus, satisfactory results (excellent and good) were obtained in all cases of the studied group, with no cases developing nonunion or implant failure. Conclusion Adding primary autogenous bone grafting to the locked bridging construct can overcome the problem of deficient callus formation. It does not only induce rapid callus formation biologically, but also mechanically protects the construct - once integrated - against repetitive stresses that can cause varus collapse, nonunion, and implant failure.
  4,119 377 -
Salter versus Dega osteotomy after open reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hip in young children
Ahmed Essam Kandil, Abo Saeed, Hassan El-Barbary, Mohamed Hegazi, Mohamed El-Sobky
March 2013, 48(1):80-87

Numerous pelvic osteotomies for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip have been described.


To compare the outcome of two types of pelvic osteotomy, Salter and Dega, for the treatment of late-diagnosed developmental dysplasia of the hip.

Patients and methods

This prospective study included 32 patients (36 hips), 18 girls and 14 boys, mean age 2.3±0.5 years. Patients were randomized for management with Salter or Dega pelvic osteotomy after open reduction and capsulorrhaphy with or without femoral shortening osteotomy. The Salter osteotomy group included 19 hips and the Dega osteotomy group included 17 hips. The median follow-up period was 12 months (range 9–20 months).


We achieved an overall success rate of 88.9% in the 36 hips, with no significant difference between the two techniques (89.5% in the Salter group and 88.2% in the Dega group, P=1.000). Both techniques achieved comparable reduction of the acetabular index (20.3±9.0π in Salter vs. 22.0±8.9° in Dega group, P=0.565). There was no significant difference in the center-edge angle between the two groups (34.8±13.0° in the Salter group and 37.4±12.1° in the Dega group, P=0.554).


We achieved comparable results with Salter and Dega osteotomy. The latter has a further advantage of avoiding a second surgery required in the Salter technique to remove hardware.

  4,065 386 -
Treatment of sacroiliac joint disruption with anterior stabilization
Mohammed M Elmanawy, Samir A Elshoura, Salah A Youssef, Fathy H Salama
January-March 2015, 50(1):45-50
Background Patients with pelvic ring injuries present with fractures ranging from single pelvic fractures to those accompanied by many life-threatening injuries. Sacroiliac joint disruption from high-energy trauma is always complicated with chronic pain and long-term morbidity. Open reduction and anterior stabilization with anterior plating have biomechanical advantages. Patients and method Ten patients were studied at Al-Azhar University Hospital (Damietta) during the period from March 2009 to February 2011. There were eight (80%) men and two (20%) women. Their ages ranged from 20 to 50 years. All patients presented with acute pelvic pain, with a history of a road traffic accident in nine (90%) patients and falling from height in one (10%) patient. Plain radiography was the first step in the diagnosis and development of a treatment plan for patients with pelvic trauma. Computed tomography has been proven to be an effective diagnostic tool for the evaluation of pelvic fractures. Results The results were excellent in three (30%) patients, good in six (60%) patients, and poor in one (10%) patient. Complications included posterior pelvic pain in one (10%) patient, superficial infection in one (10%) patient, foot drop in one (10%) patient, and pelvic tilt in one (10%) patient. Conclusion Surgical anterior stabilization was required for type C injuries with two plates lead to excellent outcome and associated with minor complications.
  4,130 225 -
Plate augmentation leaving the nail in situ and bone grafting for the treatment of nonunited diaphyseal fractures
Hosam M Khairy
October-December 2016, 51(4):297-302
Background Intramedullary nailing (IMN) is now the standard treatment for diaphyseal fractures. Despite recent advances in nailing techniques and designs, some cases of nonunion are still encountered. There are different lines of treatment for nonunion over IMN such as nail conversion to plate, exchange nailing, augmentation plating with bone grafting, and external fixation with nail retention. The aim of our study is to evaluate augmentation plating and bone grafting as a method of treatment for nonunited diaphyseal fractures over IMN. Patients and methods Eleven patients were included in this study. They were nine men and two women; their ages averaged 41 (18–54) years. The femur was affected in three cases, the tibia in six cases, and the humerus in two cases; all of them were treated by augmentation plating and bone graft. Results The follow-up duration averaged 14 (range: 9–24) months; union was achieved in all cases without complications of infection, implant failure, nonunion, or joint stiffness. Conclusion Augmentation plating and bone graft represents a good solution for the treatment of nonunited diaphyseal fractures over IMN
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Treatment for displaced navicular body fractures
Mohamed E Ali Al-Ashhab
January-March 2015, 50(1):63-67
Background Fractures of the navicular are not common. To repair navicular fractures, it is important to have an understanding of the surrounding anatomy. The navicular is a boat-shaped bone located in the medial midfoot that has multiple articulations. Objectives This article reviews the diagnosis, classification, and surgical technique for fixation of displaced navicular body fractures. Materials and methods Ten patients with consecutive 10 displaced navicular body fractures were treated surgically between March 2010 and March 2013. Results The mean postoperative score according to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score system was 90.2 (85-100). Level of evidence Case series: type IV.
  4,033 195 -
Closed reduction and Nancy nail fixation for forearm fractures in children
Ahmed El Naggar, Molham M Mohammad
October-December 2016, 51(4):347-351
Background Forearm fractures in children are common. Children forearm fractures are managed differently than are similar injuries in adults. Treatment alternatives of irreducible unstable pediatric forearm fractures are closed remanipulation under general anesthesia and casting, Kirschner wire and casting, closed or miniopen reduction and intramedullary fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation with plates. The intramedullary nail fixation is preferable in many circumstances to open reduction and plating of the forearm bones as it prevents stripping of the soft tissues; in addition, there is little in the way of surgical scar tissue and is therefore cosmetically acceptable. Patients and methods Thirty-six [32 (88.8%) boys and four (11.2%) girls] patients with fractures of both bones of the forearm were treated with elastic stable intramedullary nails. The surgery was performed within 20 h (range: 12 h–2 days). The fractures were classified according to the Orthopedic Trauma Association classification. All operations were carried out under general anesthesia and under an image intensifier control. Closed manipulation of fractures was performed to correct the length, rotation, and angulation. Blunt-ended 1.5–2.5-mm diameter titanium nails were used. An above elbow splint was applied. Results Functional results were evaluated according to the criteria of Price and colleagues. An excellent result was achieved in 30 (83.3%) patients and a good result in six (16.7%) patients. Three (8.3%) patients had olecranon bursitis due to irritation of the nail, which was resolved after nail removal. Two (5.6%) patients had superficial wound infection (redness and hotness) at the entry site of radial nail and were treated with repeated dressings and empirical antibiotics for 10 days. Conclusion The advantages of an elastic intramedullary nail fixation for the radius and ulna fractures are that it is technically straightforward, allows a high rate of osseous consolidation, is minimally invasive, and allows early mobilization.
  4,072 153 -
Pelvic support osteotomy: an effective treatment for unstable hip
Mohamed Osama Hegazy
December 2012, 47(4):335-338
Full text not available  [PDF]
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Percutaneous lateral cross-pinning of paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures
Mohamad Osman, Emad Abd Al-Hadi
July-September 2014, 49(3):188-192
Introduction The currently accepted treatment for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children is closed reduction and fixation with percutaneous Kirschner wires. The aim of this study was to study the results of a cross-wiring technique, achieved solely from the lateral side, in an effort to reduce the risk of ulnar nerve injury. Patients and methods Thirty-two cases of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures were treated by the closed reduction and lateral cross-pinning technique. The mean age of the patients was 6 years (range; 4-12). All fractures were of the extension type (Gartland's types II and III). Results The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range; 9-20 months). Using the cosmetic and functional criteria of Flynn and colleagues, cosmetically, 93.8% of the cases achieved a satisfactory outcome and 6.2% achieved fair results with mild cubitus varus. Functionally, 87.5% of the cases achieved satisfactory results and 12.5% achieved unsatisfactory results. Radiologically, all fractures united. The humeral shaft-condylar angle was normal in 90.7% and Baumann's angle was normal in all except two cases. There was no case of secondary displacement. Most complications were mild pin-site problems. There were no iatrogenic nerve injuries. Conclusion The lateral cross-pinning technique offers fracture stability and ulnar nerve safety. It could be considered as a viable option for treating displaced supracondylar fractures in children.
  3,753 358 1
Closed reduction with pinning of metaphyseal fractures of the distal radius in children
Ehab I El-Desokey, Ahmed E Kandil
June 2013, 48(2):194-199

Recent studies have shown favorable outcome with closed reduction and pinning for displaced complete fractures of the distal radius in children compared with closed reduction and casting alone, which showed a high rate of redisplacement in addition to complications that develop from extreme positions for maintaining reduction and anxiety developed from remanipulation of fractures.


During the period between July 2008 and July 2010, 30 cases of metaphyseal fractures of the distal radius were managed by closed reduction and primary pinning with the application of a forearm cast.


No case of redisplacement was reported until complete healing, and no major complications were observed.


It appears that primary pinning for distal radius fractures is a simple and safe method that can be used as an alternative to closed reduction and casting alone in the treatment of displaced metaphyseal fractures of the distal radius in children (from 5 to 12 years), and this study supports previous studies on this method of treatment.

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